Also known as: Spitz Enano, Pom, Tumbleweed, Zwers, Pomerania, Poms, Deutscher Spitz, Zwergspitz, Spitz Nain, Pompom
  • Pomeranian
  • Pomeranian

General description

Pomeranians will normally prefer spending time indoors in the company of the owner ad the family, especially with children. This breed is generally very healthy and requires regular grooming due its unique coat. The Pomeranian is very loyal and not so fond of hunting whilst it will often be intrigued by other people and animals triggering constant howling. A breed with moderate amounts of energy and little strength. Maintaining a Pomeranian will incur average expenses.

Pomeranian in short

Aspect and attributes

Characteristics accepts by FCI:

  • Colors: white, grey, black, brown, orange
  • Hair: thick, straight, short, long
  • Coats: double color, double coated

When analyzing the size of the Pomeranian it is clear how this breed is quite small. Despite being equipped with a coat that makes it look like a lion (a feature that can be found in its behavior too), the Pomeranian has a very fragile build especially on the joints level, and a typically Spitz-like head displaying round features and a rather flat muzzle which fits well with the rest of the body.

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Costs and maintenance

Pomeranians need to be able to count on the very caring presence of the owner due to their regular and daily necessities. This type of dog won't normally eat large amounts of food which is an advantage that will allow owners to adequately check any intake from alternative food sources. Nevertheless, Poms require specific care for their health especially for any issues affecting their joints, and for their fur which needs a consistent kind of attention.

Maintenance cost within average

Characteristics Summary


Suitability to apartment life

Queen Victoria welcomed a Pomeranian into her court for this specific reason. Pomeranians are perfect companion pets, great guard dogs and exceptionally suitable for apartment life. All of these qualities make the Pomeranian ideal to live in fairly small environments. The Pomeranian is a very tiny breed, the smallest among the Spitz type which is another reason why it is perfectly suitable to coexist in the home environments with the entire family.

Absolute suitability to live in apartments

Tolerance for solitude

No dog should be left on its own for too long. When talking about this breed, alone time shouldn't go over a certain amount of hours both for the Pomeranian's necessities and for the safety of the house. Although Pomeranians are not irresponsible their natural sense of autonomy has a limit and, once this is crossed it may display those needs that define the relationship between pet and owner. Moreover, as any other dog breed, a Pomeranian is especially inclined to develop separation anxiety if left in solitude for too long.

Moderately tolerant towards solitude

Suitable as first pet

The ability of the Pom to quickly adjust to the owner's routine and commands is a great benefit when trying to train this breed. Pomeranians can display specific requirements for an adequate training method. Amongst these, a Pom should absolutely be crate trained and taught not to abuse howling, especially when living in a condominium. Other than this, the Pomeranian can be recommended for inexperienced owners.

Very suitable as first pet


The Pomeranian has a very strong temperament, sometimes a bit too much. This feature can have positive and negative consequences. A Pomeranian exposed to overly loud environments or even to a number of larger dogs may react inappropriately. Your Pom should be trained to overcome certain contexts so to enable it to quickly adjust to different situations and respond adequately in each of them.

The Pomeranian has quite a tolerant temperament

Tolerance for cold temperatures

The fairly equipped coat of the Pomeranian is an advantage, especially in sensitive areas such as the neck and torso. Although this particular feature helps the Pom to be quite resistant in fairly cold climates, it should not deceive the owner as the breed's body frame is still quite delicate and fragile from a muscular stand point. This can become a concern when your Pom is exposed to extremely cold temperatures. Never forget that this type of dog loves living indoors.

Very tolerant to low temperatures

Tolerance for high temperatures

The worst enemy to a Pomeranian's health is actually heat. The structure of the respiratory system doesn't help the Pom in extremely humid and hot environments. This attribute can develop serious diseases and cause severe heat strokes episodes. The issue with the Pomeranian and many other breeds that share similar traits is a short route from the respiratory channel to its lungs. Air doesn't have enough time to cool down and can cause serious damage to the lungs.

Low tolerance for high temperatures

Friendliness and sociability

Affection towards family

Being a great companion pet, the Pomeranian will bond quite easily with its family. This relationship grows and develops while your Pom is adjusting to the pack and through the habit of interacting with its members on a daily basis. The relationship with the master can really transform into something special. In order to keep your Pomeranian away from off-limits areas of the house, we recommend focusing on its habits as this breed loves following the owner everywhere.

Absolute affection towards the family

Friendly towards children

The Pomeranian is perfectly capable of initiating interaction and it displays affection with children. Sometimes, even excessively. This aspect should be taken into account, particularly for your pet's wellbeing. Excessively boisterous games with kids can have unpleasant consequences, especially for your pet. The Pom can easily be vulnerable to serious injuries when left alone with very young children. A reason why adult supervision is always a must during this type of interaction.

Moderately friendly with children

Relationship with strangers

The Pomeranian will easily adapt to strangers in different settings. Although your Pom is perfectly capable of displaying the appropriate behavior around strangers in the house, its guarding drive won't disappear making the requirement for adequate training necessary to manage certain reactions. The matter is different when your Pomeranian is outside. It all depends on how well your pooch was trained in other contexts. And from this, you'll be able to guess its reaction.

Moderately tolerant towards strangers

Friendliness towards other dogs

Little chances in this respect. Pomeranians are absolutely convinced they are as strong as a molossoide which is why they will often engage in a confrontation, at least a verbal one, whenever they meet other dogs. This is when nothing can stand in the way of a Pomeranian although owners should always be alert and ready in case a physical confrontation occurs. This type of dog is not capable of understanding its own limits against larger dogs. Early socialization is essential to avoid these type of consequences.

Pomeranians are not very friendly towards other dogs

Care and health

Coat care and shedding

There are certain moments in the life of a Pomeranian in which this breed will require special coat care. The physical features are quite obvious and a fairly thick coat can only shed a decent amount of hair. The aforementioned moments are the typical seasons during which your dog will moult quite obviously, and during its senior years. In fact, an older Pomeranian may experience a dappled kind of shedding.

Average moulting

Salivation and drooling restraint level

The Pomeranian is quite efficient in restraining drool and it is not subject to extreme episodes. There may be certain moments when the temperature reaches extreme highs when your Pom may display an increased production of saliva and more difficulties in containing any drooling however these are rare events and usually limited to the common times of the day, such as before a meal or when your pooch is overly excited.

Dribbling restraint quite effective

Easiness to clean

Given the Pomeranian is accustomed to spending majority of its time indoors, we can safely state this breed is capable of maintaining a good level of cleanliness throughout the day. Needless to say that every dog needs to spend time outdoors and this can affect the Pom's cleanliness quite heavily. Therefore, owners should always focus on certain moments of the Pomeranian's day such as following a meal or the daily walk.

The Pomeranian is very easy to clean

Health and diseases

As many other breeds of the Spitz type, the Pomeranian may also develop a decent amount of diseases however it generally maintains a good level of health throughout its entire life. Breed-specific conditions that are worthy of mention include the possibility of developing episodes of epilepsy, and issues affecting the Pomeranian's teeth which should be regularly checked to avoid serious conditions. The Pomeranian is a breed that should be checked on a regular basis by an experienced veterinarian.

Average level of health and standard illnesses for the Pomeranian

Tendency to gain weight

As the good household pet it is, the Pom can appear rather inactive. On the contrary! Pomeranians are fond of dynamic and varied interaction and can easily move within the home environment. A great advantage when it is time to engage in daily activity. A Pomeranian won't generally eat in excess although this disposition should not be underestimated by owners who should always make sure their pooch doesn't have access to other food sources throughout the day.

Low inclination to gain weight

Learning skills

Intelligence and training

The strong interactive skills of the Pomeranian are a direct consequence of this dog's intelligence. Pomeranians were raised with the habit of engaging in different types of activity. Such a trait is a consequence of the Pom's natural requirement to live life with the owner and therefore facilitating a communication and interaction that is never the same, with no room for boredom and great results on an intellectual level. A further advantage while your Pomeranian is still undergoing training. This breed's mental swiftness is a great help in many contexts.

Great intelligence displayed during training

Loyalty and inclination to escape

The Pomeranian is not particularly inclined to escape and, once it is accustomed it will actually be quite reluctant to leave the familiar settings of the household. A decent benefit that will nevertheless require an alert owner. Despite being fairly reticent to run away, owners could feel over-confident in this type of inclination and therefore be caught off guard if it ever occurred. Nevertheless, the Pomeranian's disposition to create a special bond with the master can be seen as a boost of confidence.

Strong loyalty and little inclination to escape

Inclination to bite

A rather limited jaw both in size and mobility can be an advantage that facilitates calmness in a dog. During a rather dynamic interaction, the Pomeranian may nip simply as an expression of playing which is also why it is always attracted to objects that it can chew or play with. However, due to its famous pride a Pomeranian can attempt to use a bite as a defense and offense towards uncontrollable or hyperactive dogs.

Great self-control of nipping

Hunt drive

Despite being a breed that enjoys playing and interacting with other animals sometimes even bigger than the Pom itself, this type of dog does not have an inclination to hunt a prey. There are a number of reasons why but mainly because the Pom does not have enough energy to spend in this activity. Rather than being a hunter, a Pomeranian will more often become the target as it is often the aim of birds of prey and larger birds.

Very low hunting drive

Inclination to bark or howl

Quite consistent within the home environment. The Pomeranian can be quite vocal with a tendency to use this particular skill quite often and out of context unless it is corrected through adequate training. In case your Pom starts to bark for no reason as a habit, choosing a command that will limit it can become useful to avoid encouraging this bad habit which can also become a reason for confrontation with neighbors.

Strong inclination to bark or howl

Exercise requirements

Energy level

Moderately energetic for a breed of similar size. The nature of the Pomeranian has facilitated some of its dispositions. Pomeranians can be ideal as guard dogs but are very bad at chasing due to the limited amount of energy. Nevertheless, you shouldn't expect much more than being a pet companion from your Pomeranian which is a when this breed is unbeatable and, any other role will most likely be turned down by your pet. Best not to use this peculiarity as an excuse as your Pomeranian will still require daily exercise to release a decent amount of energy.

Energy levels within average


The strength of a Pomeranian is close to none. The muscular built of the breed doesn't enable intensity and endurance. A Pomeranian is not open to modifying its standards in relation to the type of activities that may involve strength and this may be one of the features that made this breed ideal for apartment life. Be very careful with your Pom whenever it moves around the house and especially when it interacts with kids as it can be subject to numerous injuries.

Very tame and not overly powerful

Exercise requirements

The low level of energy in a Pomeranian is quite explanatory of the requirement for exercise in the breed. It is important that this type of dog can count on a balanced amount of daily activity both indoors and outdoors. Never allow your Pomeranian to build up excess stress due to lack of exercise as this will also help your pooch avoiding weight gain.

Average need for exercise

Tendency to play

The Pomeranian is quite lively and curious. These two traits are usually displayed over a short but intense period of time. Nevertheless, best not to exclude the possibility that your Pom will push itself over the limit simply because of curiosity. This kind of behavior could cause the other party interacting with it to become intense as well with a risk to the Pomeranian safety. Adult supervision is essential, particularly when the Pomeranian is playing with children.

Strong inclination to play

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