Also known as: Chinese pug, Dutch bulldog, Dutch mastiff, Mini mastiff, Mops, Carlin
  • Pug
  • Pug

General description

Pugs are a unique breed that loves spending time indoors and dislike being left alone. Sharing happy moments with the owner is all a Pug will ever want, provided that this is done away from overly cold or hot environments. A type of dog gifted with great companionship skills which easily adapts to life with other dogs and is quick in establishing a friendly relationship even with strangers. Pugs love to play and have a decent amount of energy and strength. A Pug may be inclined to gain weight so it is important it gets a decent amount of daily exercise. Maintenance cost are within range.

Pug in short

Aspect and attributes

Characteristics accepts by FCI:

  • Colors: fawn, black, apricot, silver
  • Hair: smooth, short
  • Coats: double color, double coated

The body structure of a Pug is of a small-sized but well proportioned dog. Features that define a Pug's look are in the shape of the cranium and face. The former is rather rounded while the latter is very short-muzzled; both these features give Pugs that peculiar look considered so funny. A Pug's legs are limited in structure yet defined by a decent muscular build. The torso area is also fairly developed and quite even from chest to tail.

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Costs and maintenance

Particular attention is required with Pugs. This dog breed doesn't require a higher than average maintenance cost, however it does need regular (or frequent) health checkups. Pugs can develop more than a few health issues so should always be checked thoroughly. Everything else is within average, both for regular coat inspection and dietary requirements of your Pug.

Expenditures and maintenance within average

Characteristics Summary


Suitability to apartment life

The perfect amount of space needed by a pug to enjoy life is that of an apartment. Regardless of the size, Pugs can easily accustom to a pleasant existence indoors as if they were the house masters. A Pug can move around with ease and share space with any other person without disdain for some exploration of various household environments. However, it's important to thoroughly consider having a Pug in an apartment block as this breed can be quite noisy in certain situations.

Very suitable to live in a unit

Tolerance for solitude

It is absolutely impossible to leave a Pug on its own. Pugs are capable of following owners in the most unthinkable places and share their everyday routine with them. Those choosing a Pug as their pet should be aware of this behavioral trait and always keep their pet's needs in mind. Leaving a Pug alone for too long may facilitate the onset of quite serious behavioral issues.

Low tolerance to solitude

Suitable as first pet

There are many defining criteria when choosing a pet. One of these could be the desire to develop a daily relationship with a pet that is pleasant to be around. Pugs are adorable in this respect. A Pug is not particularly difficult to train nor is it unsuitable for inexperienced owners. Nevertheless, a Pug's daily needs, its famous inability at being alone and the essential need to constantly be in the owner's company are all aspects to be considered.

Quite suitable as first pet


If trained too harshly, Pugs can develop unwanted behaviors manifesting into fear or shyness. Two features that must be considered during training. Picking up a shy or scared dog while it's interacting with others or even the owner may become an issue, especially for subjects like Pugs that live to develop a daily interaction with their owner or family members.

Moderate temperament

Tolerance for cold temperatures

The body type of a Pug clearly identifies a rather weak resistance to extreme weather conditions. Low temperatures are not ideal for this breed and this should be taken into account by owners about to take their Pug for a walk or daily exercise on a cold day. An appropriate clothing is essential for a Pug before tackling the chilly air on cold winter days.

Low tolerance to cold temperature

Tolerance for high temperatures

As with low temperatures, Pugs are also quite intolerant to heat. This breed is particularly affected by this weather condition, especially due to the unique face structure which defines its breathing functions. Heat and humidity can be a cause of distress that is hard to overcome for Pugs. It is essential that every Pug owner pays close attention to this disposition by avoiding daily walks during the hottest or more humid times. Ensuring a Pug has access to water and food when necessary can be helpful.

Low tolerance to high temperatures

Friendliness and sociability

Affection towards family

This breed's affection towards the family is one of its most enjoyable traits. The inclination to share time with family found in this type of dog is like no others and it allows to fully appreciate its likability and tameness. This feature is quite unique in smaller breeds which are capable of attracting and stimulating this type of affection throughout the day. This is also a trait that makes Pugs especially suitable for elderly people who may gain therapeutic benefits in their company.

Absolute affection towards the family

Friendly towards children

One of the major social stimuli in a Pug is being able to engage in daily interaction with children. This breed is quite generous in this regard and loves to spend time with kids who seem to be particularly attracted by Pugs probably because of the congeniality this breed ensues in people. This is a fundamental trait which helps promoting the pleasant aspects of this interaction and develop a mutually entertaining and never dull type of communication.

Very friendly towards children

Relationship with strangers

Pugs are generally quite calm even when having to communicate with unfamiliar people. A Pug's disposition to being curious but never quite suspicious makes this breed ideal in different public situations, even in the presence of numerous people or pets. Nevertheless, it is important to remember how training is absolutely necessary for a sound socialization beginning at a young age.

Great tolerance towards strangers

Friendliness towards other dogs

The ability to spend time with other dogs, even belonging to different breeds tends to develop through an adequate training method. Trained Pugs are capable of understanding when they are required to maintain self-control, for example during public events. A Pug's ability to socialize with other pets must be an anchor in a Pug's first few months as it needs to learn how to coexist even with larger dogs without getting into trouble. A perfectly trained Pug will be a highly sociable pet.

Exceptional friendliness towards other dogs

Care and health

Coat care and shedding

Despite being equipped with a rather short fur, Pugs actually tend to shed quite copiously. Both because of the coloring and this breed's preference of indoor spaces over the outdoor ones, moulting could potentially become an issue for those household areas in which a Pug loves to interact. That is when pieces of furniture such as the couch or bed could be affected but excess dirt due to your pet's fur. An issue for those who may develop allergies or nuisance towards this kind of situation.

Quite a heavy shedding

Salivation and drooling restraint level

This aspect relating to Pugs should be evaluated based on the environmental conditions. Pugs can become pretty intolerant towards those kind of climates characterized by excessive heat. This matter can increase the chances of a rather challenging containment of your Pug's salivation. This phenomenon can occur even in the most common situations, such as closer to meal time.

Drooling restraint withing average

Easiness to clean

A Pug's cleanliness is often facilitated by this breed's "good manners". This type of dog does not enjoy getting dirty and is very fond of the more comfortable spaces in the household. Quite the advantage for Pug owners which however shouldn't become an excuse to neglect taking care of this dog's coat and more sensitive body parts. Pug owners must ensure regular inspections of their pet's fur and daily checks of areas such as face and tail.

Little need for cleaning

Health and diseases

Pugs will generally keep in great physical health throughout their entire life. Nevertheless, some particular diseases must be taken into account. Issues could arise in connection to a trauma which can affect the eyes, unique in this breed due to their rather exposed position compared to the orbital sockets. Other problems may relate to neurological diseases or musculoskeletal malfunctions.

General health and standard illness

Tendency to gain weight

Another weakness found in Pugs is their tendency to gain weight. This breed is unfairly considered quite lazy however this idleness is only an appearance as Pugs tend to concentrate their energy within a few essential moments which their slender body doesn't allow to extend throughout longer periods of time. This is when owners need to take control by ensuring their pet's inclination to eat at any time is restrained and facilitating outdoor activity. An inactive Pug that is allowed to eat erratically tends to put on weight.

High disposition for weight gain

Learning skills

Intelligence and training

It is advisable to develop a mindful kind of training when owning a Pug. This is a fairly tolerant breed on a temperamental level however it is essential not to apply an overly firm training method under certain aspects. This type of dog is well receptive to the owner's commands although it sometimes has a tendency to lose interest in the proposed activity. In this respect, Pugs display some weak points that should be considered beforehand.

Intelligence and training on average

Loyalty and inclination to escape

All animals, dogs especially display a decent amount of interest for situations that may spark their curiosity. Pugs however, are not particularly inclined to great escapes as this is a disposition affected by a "present impression" developed by the dog. Based on the fact of not being exactly athletes, Pugs have a moderate inclination to run away and their deep bond to the family makes them extremely loyal.

Very loyal with low tendency to run away

Inclination to bite

Pugs are not a dog breed that will develop dangerous behaviors leading to a bite. Pugs prove to be rather tame and not inclined to excessively boisterous behaviors, maintaining a remarkable calm. Obviously, owners will need to mitigate these kind of behaviors during training to avoid ever experiencing issues with other people or dogs.

Very calm in relation to self-control and biting inclination

Hunt drive

When talking about Pugs, we must highlight how this breed is fond of enjoying the household without ever developing a special interest for animated situations nor becoming too obsessed with other animals roaming around their territory and therefore sparking their attention. This is quite an advantage for those owners on the search of a "peaceful" pet which can share relaxing times with.

Low drive to hunt preys

Inclination to bark or howl

It appears almost as a rule. Small-sized breeds can be perfect "interpreters" of their owner's voice. Pugs are no exception here and can be quite noisy when wanting to attract their master's attention. A skill not to be underestimated, especially if living in an apartment block. This behavior can however be assessed and modified during training.

High tendency to bark or howl

Exercise requirements

Energy level

A Pug's energy level is within average. After all we shouldn't have high expectations, considering the size and muscular built of this breed. Despite this, it is still possible to enjoy a pleasant interaction with your Pug during the more active times of day. This aspect is important as Pugs require an appropriate amount of daily activity shared with the owner, especially to benefit their fitness level and overall wellbeing.

Energy levels within average


A Pug's natural strength can be seen as a surprising feature. We are referring to "exceptional behaviors" which are nothing compared to what happens with other and much larger dog breeds, however it is quite a startling feature which requires a decent amount of control during certain types of interaction. A Pug spending time with a kid is never dangerous, however it's imperative to have adult supervision.

Tameness and strength within average

Exercise requirements

Despite being generally in good shape, a Pug needs to be supported in developing a daily routine involving a decent amount of exercise. Exercise will be useful as a way of relieving stress built up during the many hours spent in the house without performing any sort of activity, as well as a deterrent to a sedentary lifestyle which Pugs may find rather enjoyable.

Average need for exercise

Tendency to play

A further motivation to interact with Pugs is their natural congeniality. A Pug's face is an invitation to play and an excuse to admire all of the different reactions as well as your pet's ability at being interesting. This peculiar feature prompts people to initiate play and become completely involved in the delightful situations arising from this activity, rather than having to be the ones involving their Pug. Obviously, there is no need to force your pet if it seems bored or tired.

Strong inclination to play

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